General Bernard Law Montgomery

Tirpitz – German Battleship

This ship was named after Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz

English Forces – 1943

HMS Victorious (carrier)

40 barracuda dive bombers and 40 escorting fighters


Lancaster Bombers


Commanders

Churchill


German Forces

Tirpitz


Tirpitz


Commanders

Donitz

November 17, 1887

Born in Kennington England

November 17, 1887
January 1, 1914

BEF France

Severally wounded expected to Die but recovered.

January 1, 1914
January 1, 1942

Commanded British Eigth Army

After death of General Gott, Montgomery took command.

January 1, 1942
January 1, 1943

Sicily

Invasion of Sicly

January 1, 1943
January 1, 1944

D Day

Returned to England to plan and lead British Forces into France

January 1, 1944
January 1, 1944

Operation Market Garden

Largest Airborne Operation Ever. Failure.

January 1, 1944
January 1, 1945

After the War

Commanded British Forces in Rhine

January 1, 1945
January 1, 1958

Retirement

Retired – Eventually died in 1976

January 1, 1958

The man who we would one day know as General Montgomery was born in 1887 to a large and religious family in England. As he grew up he found that academic study was not his strength and that sports were. Sports made him happy.

In 1907 Bernard Montgomery entered a military academy as a cadet. In 1908, as a commissioned Second Lieutenant, he was posted to India and spent 4 years there with the British Army. Bernard was an unusual man in at least one regard. He did not enjoy drinking alcohol. This was very unusual for officers in his time. After four years in India, he returned with his unit back to England, where he continued his military eduction.

At the age of 26, Bernard was a full lieutenant and platoon commander in the Royal Warwickshires. With the advent of War War 1. Bernard went to France with the BEF in August of 1914. Bernard was unfortunately shot through the lung while in no mans land and also shot in the knee. He was expected to die from his wounds, with even a grave being dug for him. He recovered in Englad swifly, in almost a miraculous manner. He returned to active duty and served in England for the next 2 years. In 1916 he returned to France and served as a staff officer. His experience in WW1 allowed him to write and publish training manuals for the British Army. In 1925 he was a company commander in his original unit.

Montgomery got married in 1927.

His experience in WW1 and his military writing after the war formed his new view of warfare and his belief that the tank would be the desive instrument of combat in future land battles. In 1931 he became battlion commander of his original unit.

In 1937 his wife died and he was heart broken. He believe that she brought out the best of him and cooled his temper.

In 1939 Bernard was promoted to the Rank of Major General and commanded the 8th division in Palestine.

General Montgomery took command of a division in England when World War 2. General Montgomery found himself returning to war in France with the BEF yet again. Even though he did his best to ensure his division was a prepared as it could be, the entire BEF and French military were completely unprepared and unable to handle the new tactics and plans from the Germans. Fast Armored attacked supported by an airforce and artillery through all British and French unts into chaos and disorder. General Montgomery was in chard of Second Corp was responsible for its retreat and departure from Dunkirk. While Montgomery was just as surprised and upset as any other commander about what happened in France, he was doubly angry when in England he saw the utter confusion on the part of his higher chain of command. He received in short order mutliple orders for action all of which were contradictory. He spared to time in demonstrating his opinion regarding this.

Montgomery began training his men for the defense of England in case of invasion and in typical Montgomery style consistently showed his displeasure at whe he viewed as incompetence by his superiors. With the rise of Churchill, Montgomery was promoted yet again to Lt. General and immediately began removing commanders in his chain of command whom he felt were incompetant.

In 1942 the German Army under the command of Rommel were pushing the British back in all areas. General Gott was to be the new commander taking over command of British Forces in the hopes of turning things around. General Gott’s plane was shot down and he was killed. Due to this General Montgomery took over command of British Eigth Army. His over all commander was Sir Harold Alexander in charge of all British forces Africa/ Mediterannean. Montgomery was able to turn the Eigth Army around raising its moral and training. He raised the fighting spirit of Eigth Army and was critical to English Success against the Germans in Africa.

In 1942 the German Army under the command of Rommel were pushing the British back in all areas. General Gott was to be the new commander taking over command of British Forces in the hopes of turning things around. General Gott’s plane was shot down and he was killed. Due to this General Montgomery took over command of British Eigth Army. His over all commander was Sir Harold Alexander in charge of all British forces Africa/ Mediterannean. Montgomery was able to turn the Eigth Army around raising its moral and training. He raised the fighting spirit of Eigth Army and was critical to English Success against the Germans in Africa. In 1943 German forces surrendered to British and American Armies.

Montgomery went on to lead British Forces in the invasion of Sicily and on to mainland Italy. In December of 1943 Montgomery left for England to help prepare and lead troops in the invasion of France. General Montgomery planned and lead English force in France. Key battles round Caan, France allowed American forces to push inland quickly. Montgomery has been criticized for how he attacked Caan, Whether that is fair is hard to say. British forces engaged some of the best German units in the area here, including SS units.

Montgomery was responsible for planning and execution of Operation Market Garden, a huge airborne offensive involving three airborne divisions. This Operation was a failure and this failure weighed heavily upon him.

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